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  • Whenever you search in PBworks or on the Web, Dokkio Sidebar (from the makers of PBworks) will run the same search in your Drive, Dropbox, OneDrive, Gmail, Slack, and browsed web pages. Now you can find what you're looking for wherever it lives. Try Dokkio Sidebar for free.


Chapter 23: Revolutions

Page history last edited by Richard Monroe 14 years, 3 months ago








Section 2

Working together using this wiki

Think of this wiki as a shared online whiteboard. The entire class can share information using this wiki, making your research accessible to everyone. You will not  have to complete the IDs all by yourself! Play around with this wiki: Notice how you can add comments to a page, see what people have changed, and edit all the text.


How to add your information to this wiki...

  1. Click on the Edit tab at the top.
  2. Scroll down to your term and copy and paste your information. (Be sure to add your name after the term)
  3. Use the right toolbar to insert images and files (be sure to keep your images small - we are all sharing this page)

    Use this checklist to check your work: (I use this list to grade your wiki)

    • Add your name next to the term/concept you are responsible for (5 pts)
    • Underline the term/concept - make it bold or heading 2 size (5 pts)
    • Brief summary of term/concept - use bullets or highlight key points (55 pts)
    • Picture/map - must include caption (keep image small in size) (image = 15 pts; caption =10 pts)
    • Please provide a FULL citation for the source(s) used - www.citationmachine.net can help. (5 pts)
    • Post your info in the right location - instead insert your image with caption right under your content. (5 pts)
    You are responsible for TWO terms this week.
  1. When you are done, hit Save at the bottom and view your work (make changes (Edit) as necessary).
  2. TIP: only one person can edit this wiki at a time, so I suggest you create your entry in a word program first. Then you can simply copy and paste it right in when the wiki is available for edit.


 Identifications - Revolutions - you are responsible for TWO this week:

American Revolution (world view) -


Declaration of Independence - Alexandra Bauer


  • Adopted by the 2nd Continental Congress of the United states on July 4, 1776
  • It officially severed the ties of the American colonies with the mother country of Great Britain
  • It was composed by Thomas Jefferson, who was part of a declaration writing committee along with John Adams and Benjamin Franklin
  • The Declaration was divided into three parts
    1. The Preamble in which Jefferson stated the famous basic rights of man, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,
    2. Then followed a statement of grievances against King George III and the disappointment of the colonists in regards to the failed protected of the mother country
    3. Finally, the closing of the document states that the only measure left available to ensure the rights of the colonies was a declaration of separation
  • The continental congress, extremely divided on the issue of officially severing ties with England decided that the only way the Declaration of Independence could be ratified would be with a unanimous vote of approval
  • After much revisions and changes, the Declaration was ratified on July 4, 1776
  • John Dickinson made one of the last attempts to delay separation with England, but in the end he respectfully abstained from voting
  • The Declaration of Independence was a model for countries in revolution across the world, including the French Revolution in 1789

 This is a picture of Thomas Jefferson, the author of the Declaration of Independence. Penned the famous, "life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness" statement of rights.


"United States Declaration of Independence ." Wikipedia . 28 Jan 2009. Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia. 5 Feb 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Declaration_of_Independence>.


US Constitution -

Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette - Kelly Best


King and queen of France and Navarre from 1774-1791

King and queen “of the French” from 1791-1792

Married at the ages of fifteen (him) and fourteen (her)

The two had four children together

Contributed to the start of the French Revolution by caving in and allowing It to take place

Louis XVI was viewed as foolish

Marie liked the theatre and having entertainment and was viewed as careless

Executed by guillotine within a few months of each other

Disliked because of their extravagant lifestyles and resistance and opposition to reform


This is a picture of Marie Antoinette and King Louis XVI with their children.

"Louis XVI of France." Wikipedia. Wikipedia. 5 Feb 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_xvi>. (Originally sited from the French website http://people.umw.edu/~spowers/The%20French%20Connection.org/pouvait.htm)

30 Jan 2009 <http://www.franceattraction.com/france_attraction_images/louise-marie-antoinette.jpg>.


Estates General and the Tennis Court Oath -

French Revolution of 1789 (world view) -

Bastille Day -

Declaration of the Rights of Man -

Jacobins, Committee of Public Safety, Reign of Terror -Alison Chang



was the largest and most powerful political club of the French revolution. It originated as the Club Benthorn, formed at Versailles as a group of Breton deputies to the Estates General of 1789. At the height of its influence, there were thousands of chapters throughout France, with a membership estimated at 420,000. 




The Door of the Jacobin Club was in~ the Saint-Honoré Street, Paris, France.

Committee of Public Safety

set up by the National Convention on April 61793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793-4) of the French Revolution. Under war conditions and with national survival seemingly at stake, the Jacobins, under Maximilien Robespierre, centralized denunciations, trials, and executions under the supervision of this committee of first nine and then twelve members. The committee was responsible for thousands of executions, with many high-profile executions at the guillotine, in what was known as the "Reign of Terror." Frenchmen were executed under the pretext of being a supporter of monarchy or against the revolution. The Committee ceased meeting in 1795.



Comité de Salut Public, 1794. Anonymous French print, 18th century.


Reign of Terror

was a period of violence that occurred fifteen months after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution." 




1819 Caricature by BritonGorge Cruikshank. Titled' The Radical's Arms". it depicts infamous guillotine. "no GOd!no religion! No King  No onstitution! is written in the republican banner




Thermidor - Tyler Cornett


·         The Thermidorian Reaction took place on July 27, 1794.

·         It was a revolt in which the French revolutionaries Robespierre and Saint-Just came under attack from the Committee of Public Safety.

·         The Thermidor Reaction marked the ending of the Reign of Terror, a period in which 20,000-40,000 revolutionaries were executed.

·         Robespierre and his supporters were guillotined without any trial.

·         Caused a social upheaval that replaced the National Convention with the French Directory.

A picture portraying the Thermodorian Reaction.

"Thermidorian Reaction." www.tripod.com. www.tripod.com. 6 Feb 2009 <http://ap_history_online.tripod.com/apeh8c.htm>.  


The Directory - Estefania

-    1795-1799

-    The Directory became France’s executive power between 1795 and 1799

-    In this Directory were five directors or members, and each one of them was elected by the Council of Ancients (les Anciens) and the Five Hundred (Cinq-Cents)

-    It was very effective in its firsts years, but then corruption and self-service took place.

-    Internal bickering and in fighting destabilized the country and in 1799, two of its members, Paul Barras and Abbe Sieyes joined with Napoleon Bonaparte to overthrow their colleagues.

-    The Coup of Brumaire succeeded and the Directory was dissolved.

-    The Directory was replace by the Consulate.

(same as Napoleon image below)

Portrait of Napoleon.

"The Directory." Napoleon Guide. 5 Feb. 2009 <http://www.napoleonguide.com/directory.htm>.


Napoleon Bonaparte - Michael Decker


Napoleon was a French military and political leader who became emperor.  He was one of the most influential men in European history.  He staged a coup d’etat and crowned himself emperor.  He led many successful war campaigns on nearly every continental European country and maintained his sphere of appointment by alliances forged by appointing family members and friends to high positions throughout the empire.  The tides turned on him when he went to war with Russia.  The Russian winter defeated him.  He was exiled to the island of Elba.  He escaped after a year and started another war campaign.  He lost at the battle of Waterloo and was banished to the island of Saint Helena, where died 6 years later.


Napoleon Bonaparte was one of the most influential men in European history.


"Napoleon I of France." Wikipedia. 2009. WikiMedia. 5 Feb 2009




Stearns, Peter. "The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West."World Civilizations. 4th ed. 2006.



Congress of Vienna and the Congress System(Shelly Franks) 

  • Held from September 1814 to June 1815
  • Congress of Vienna was called in order to remake Euripe after the downfall of Napoleon I
  • Main goal of the conference was to create a balance of power that would preserve the peace
  • France was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoleon and Great Britian got several strategic colonial territories and gained control of the seas
  • France was restored under the rule of Louis XVII and Spain was restored under Ferdinand VII
  • Congress was very successful in achieving its goal, and Europe was left undisturbed for almost 40 years


Donohue, Lacey. "Congress of Vienna." Chico Unified School District - CUSD Main - CUSD Homepage - CUSD Homepage. 05 Feb.      2009 <http://cusd.chico.k12.ca.us/~bsilva/projects/congress.vienessy.html>. 

 http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media/66/366-004-64BCCDAB.gif                                  Map of Europe after the Congress of Vienna.


Klemens von Metternich- (Laura Guidry)

  • Austrian statesman, minister of foreign affairs, and champion of conservatism who helped form the victorious alliance against Napoleon I
  • Restored Austrian as a leading European power, hosting the Congress of Vienna in 1814-15
  • Equally represented liberalism, nationalism, and revolution
  • Ideal was a monarchy that shared power with the traditional privileged class of society
  • Was chancellor of the Hapsburg empire (1821-48) and was Europe’s leading statesman until driven from power by the Revolution of 1848



"Metternich - MSN Encarta." MSN Encarta : Online Encyclopedia, Dictionary, Atlas, and Homework. 05 Feb. 2009 http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761566529/metternich.html.

Klemens von Metternich was Europe's leading statesman in his era


Serfdom in Russia -Cory Hume

Ivan III of Russian produced a law code, the Sudebnik, which made the peasants of Russia more dependent. Serfs were given estates and in 1658, to leave the estate and move elsewhere was a crime and could be tried as such. Complete ownership was given to the landowners of the serfs. The landowners could move the serfs as they pleased, including their families. However, the owner could not take the serf’s life. Serfs made a very large proportion of the population in Russia, about 80%. Several uprisings occurred including the revolt of Ivan Bolotnikov between 1606-1607. Eventually, serfdom was eliminated in 1861 in a major reform inspired by words of Tsar Alexander II, who said "it is better to liberate the peasants from above than to wait until they won their freedom by risings from below."


This is a portrait of Russian serfs and the landowners together. The picture depicts the type of lifestyle that the serfs experienced everyday and the work they did.

"Russian Serfs." Spartacus Educational - Home Page. 05 Feb. 2009 <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSserfs.htm>.


Revolutions of 1848 (Sarah Mann)

  • Revolts against European monarchies.
  • Started in Sicily and extended to France, German and Italian states, and the Austrian Empire.
  • Soldiers faithful to the monarchy stopped most of the rebellions.
  • Revolutionaries did not fully cooperate with each other. 
  • Ultimately failed.
  • Causes – economic trouble and unhappiness with government.
  • Effects – increase of parliamentary type governments, increased suffrage for men (mostly France), elimination of manorialism, and unification movements.
  • German states wanted removal of disliked ministers and a national parliament. 
  • Austrian Empire revolution started out successful but led to failure; wanted less central authority. 
  • Italian states wanted to remove Austrians and unification.
  • Also known as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution.
  • Many thousands died.


"Revolutions of 1848 ." Answers.com. 2009. Answers Corporation. 4 Feb 2009 http://www.answers.com/topic/revolutions-of-1848.



This is a map of Europe in 1848.


Jones,, Peter S.. "The 1848 Revolutions." The Concert of Europe. 2009. 4 Feb 2009 http://www.amitm.com/thecon/lesson4.html.


Chartist movement (Sarah Mann)

  • 1838 to 1848
  • Middle class wanted Parliamentary reform
  • Took place in Great Britain
  • Name of movement came from a bill, “People’s Charter”, that was drafted by William Lovett (1838)
  • Six major demands of the Chartists’
    • Votes for all men over 21
    • Equal electoral districts
    • Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament be property owners
    • Payment for members of Parliament
    • Annual general elections
    • Secret ballot
  • After getting around 250,000 signatures, Chartists presented the Charter to the House of Commons (1839)
  • It was rejected (235 to 46)
  • Angry Chartists leaders were arrested for threatening to call a strike
  • Chartists supporters marched to the prison the leaders were being held at, and troops started shooting at them
  • 24 were killed and 40 wounded
  • Another charter (1842) was presented with 3 million signatures but was also rejected
  • The movement ended when a third petition that had 6 million signatures (1848) was rejected



Everett, Glenn. "Chartism or The Chartist Movement." VictorianWeb.org. 1999. 5 Feb 2009 http://www.victorianweb.org/history/hist3.html.



"Chartism." Answers.com. 2009. Answers Corporation. 5 Feb 2009 http://www.answers.com/topic/chartism.



 This is a picture of William Lovett, an important leader in the Chartist movement and author of the “People’s Charter.”


Crail, Mark. "MyTimemachine." 2009. 5 Feb 2009 http://www.markcrail.co.uk/.


Third Reform Act (UK) -Brianna Kosko

  • Who: William Gladston and Benjamin Disraeli had an intense rivalry which helped bring about the Third Reform Act
  • What: It was a response to the inequality in the electoral system from the Reform Act of 1867 by Benjamin Disraeli
  • When: 1884
  • Where: United Kingdom
  • Why: It established the one member constituency for its Parliament's representation
  • How it's important: It's important because it extended the same voting qualities in the towns to the country

Source: http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Representation-of-the-People-Act-1884

William Gladstone  This is a picture of William Gladstone...the prime minister who had a rivalry with Benjamin Disraeli



Napoleon III -Sara Marshall

àNapoleon III was also known as Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte.

àHe was the nephew of Napoleon I.

àHe was born on April 20, 1808.

àHe was the first president of the French Republic.

àHe was the only Emperor of the Second French Empire. He became Emperor in 1852, and under his reign, they turned greatly to Italy.

àNot only was he the first president of France; but, he was also the last monarch as well.

àHe is most well-known for making the Second French Empire a Liberal Empire.

àHe extended the power of legislature during his time of rule.

àThe “Liberal Empire” lasted from 1860-1870.

àThe Franco-Prussian War ruined the Second Empire in 1870

àSoon after, he was captured by the Prussians. He was released in 1871, and went into exile in England soon after.

 ....This is a picture of Napoleon III, during his reign over the Second French Empire.

"Napoleon III." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 5 Feb. 2009 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.




The Dreyfus Affair -

Nationalism – Steven Myers

·         An ideology that focuses on the needs of a nation.

o    Originated in Europe.

o    The precise location and date of its origin is unknown.

·         Often tied in with the movements of popular sovereignty, universal suffrage, and the modern nation-state that came to a head during the French Revolution.

o    Usually recognized as the cause of both world wars.

·         The ideology stresses that “the people” are the driving force behind the government, and as such, must do all in their power to protect and uphold the government because they are, in turn, protecting themselves.

o    Nationalism can be acquainted with violence and revolution, but is does not have to be as such.

·         “Banal Nationalism” is the everyday type of nationalism displayed through various venues. (i.e. flags on buildings, the Pledge of Allegiance, the singing of the Star-Spangled banner before sporting events, etc.)





This is a popular picture of the French Revolution, which took place primarily because of the nationalist spirit that was spreading through France. This is exemplified by the French flag being carried by Lady Liberty.


"Nationalism." Wikipedia. 2009. 7 Feb 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nationalism>.

"Nationalism." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2001. 7 Feb 2009 <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nationalism/>.


Unification of Italy (Shampa Panda)


-During the 19th century, this was the process of unifcation of what had previosuly been seperate atonomous states into Italy.

-Began with end of Napoleonic rule, ended with beginning of World War I

-Italian nationalists began fighting against Austrian Empire for self government

-Important revolutionary groups include Carbonari, who drew its membership from the middle class and the intellectual elite.

-After Second war of Italian Independence/The War of 1859, Victor Emmanuel III becomes the first king of Italy

Map of the Unification of Italy
This is a map that shows the unification of Italy, from seperate states to Italy.
"Italian Unification." Wikipedia. Wikipedia. 5 Feb 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_unification>.


Unification of Germany and Otto von Bismarck - Danie SAN M

German confederation formed in 1815 but under Austria’s presidency.  Until then there were various German states, with Austria and Prussia being the most powerful of the states.  Austria was very important in the confederation, because of the throne, while many of the other states wanted unification Austria and Prussia opposed.  Railways were constructed to lessen the time distance between German states.  The King of Prussia was offered the throne as German Emperor, but he refused.  When Bismarck became the Minister of Prussia he had set a goal to make Prussia the dominate power of over Austria.  With Austria’s help Prussia, invaded Schleswig-Holstein to remove Danish control, because of this Prussia gained favor from nationalists.  Bismarck allied with the Italians and gained French neutrality, and provoked Austrians into war, Austria lost the war, but Bismarck made sure that it lost no land.  The north German confederation was formed with all the German states north of the Main River under the control of Prussia.  The Spanish throne was offered to a prince of Germany, France pressured for this not to happen and Prince Leopold under pressure declined the offer.  Bismarck then made it look as if the French Ambassador had been insulted by the Prussian king, France enraged declared war.  With the patriotism offered by the war Bismarck united the Southern German states with the Northern states, and defeated France, laying heavy siege to Paris.

German States before Bismarck united them.  Compare the size of Austria and Prussia to the others.

February 10, 2009. European History. http://www.historyhome.co.uk/europe/unific.htm. The unification of Germany.



Ausgleich – Rishi Simha 


Image (http://www.travelguide2austria.com/i1_Austria-hungary.png):  This is most of the land controlled by Austria-Hungary.

In February of 1867, Hungary and Austria signed an accord creating a dual monarchy.  Germans called this compromise Ausgleich.  In fear of Prussian invasion, Austria and Hungary hastily came together and established Austria-Hungary.  Under the document, the Magyars and Austrians were near equal to one another in power and a common monarch controlled the armed forces, foreign policy, and the customs union.

SOURCE:  "Ausgleich." NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Ausgleich. 2005. NationMaster.com. 5 Feb 2009 <http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Ausgleich>.


Alexander II and the Emancipation of Russian serfs - Lauren Sink

  Alexander took the throne of Russia after his father died.


·         Alexander succeeded to the throne upon the death of his father in 1855

·         The first year of his reign was devoted to the prosecution of the Crimean War

·         Began a period of radical reforms, encouraged by public opinion but carried out with autocratic power

·         the growth of a revolutionary movement to the "left" of the educated classes led to an abrupt end to Alexander's changes when he was assassinated by a bomb in 1881

·         Plans were formed for building a great network of railways,  progress was blocked by a formidable obstacle: serfdom

·         In all provinces where serfdom existed, emancipation committees were formed

·         The emancipation of serfdom contained very complicated problems, deeply affecting the economic, social and political future of the nation

·         Russian peasantry became one of the last groups of peasants in Europe to shake off serfdom

“Alexander II of Russia”. NationMaster.com. 2005. 4 February 2009. <http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Alexander-II-of-Russia>.





Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Women - Crystal Tsang

wollstonecraft.jpg (3477 bytes)

  • Lived during the French Revolution

  • Advocated for the rights of women in property rights and ownership

  • Feminist, fought against belief that women are inferior to men

  • British nationality

  • Rejected the sexual component of relationships

  • Early works were centered around education

  • Only daughter wrote Frankenstein

  • Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Men in response to Edmund Burkes Reflections on the Revolution in France.


Women's movement and suffrage -

Romanticism, Realism, Impressionism -

Charles Darwin, On Origin of Species - Alexandra Bauer


  • Published on November 4, 1859
  • Written by Charles Darwin who was an English naturalist
  • He realized that species evolve, or develop over time
  • He composed his thoughts in the book, On the Origin of Species
  • The work introduced the theory that populations evolve over a certain time due to a process called natural selection
  • Natural selection is the idea that certain species either adapt to their changing climate or conditions or they simply die out
  • A modern misconception is that Darwin stated, “survival of the fittest” which he did not
  • Darwin proposed that diversity in life was a result of evolution
  • The book was extremely controversial because it contradicted religious beliefs that the universe was created by a God
  • The most controversal aspect of this theory was that humans had in fact evolved from monkeys 
  • The idea of evolution created a huge stir after its first proposal in Darwin’s work, leading to landmark The State of Tennessee v. Scopes monkey trial in 1925 in which evolution was banned from public schools 
  • Natural selection remains one of the main opposing theories to Creation

 This is a picture depicting the theory of evolution, that humans developed overtime from apes. That theory was proposed by Charles Darwin in On the Origin of Species


"On the Origin of Species" Wikipedia . 5 Feb 2009. Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia. 5 Feb 2009 < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On_the_Origin_of_Species>.




Friedrich Nietzsche -


Albert Einstein - Kelly Best

  • Scientist, lived from 1879-1955
  • Exhibited curiosity and understanding for many mysteries in science from a young age
  • 1905 “Miracle Year” with publishing of 4 influential papers
  • Developed theory of Relativity (e=mc2)
  • Won Nobel Prize for it in Physics in 1921


This is a picture of the young Einstein, at about the age of fourteen.

30 Jan 2009 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ad/Albert_Einstein_as_a_child.jpg.

"Albert Einstein Biography." Einstein. 2008. 5 Feb 2009 http://einstein.biz/biography.

Sigmund Freud -

Social Darwinism -

Louisiana Purchase and the Monroe Doctrine -

American Civil War (world view) -


Immigration to the US  -Alison Chang

Immigrants (Slav)

during the revolution, alot of europeans immigrant to the US in order to have a better quality of life,


1789 the consitution of the USA takes effect, succeeding the articles of confederation since the conclusion of the revolutionary war


1808 importation of slaves into the US is offcially banned though it it continues illegally long after the ban


1840s crop failures in Germany, social turbulence triggered by the rapid industrialization of European society political unrest in europe, and the irish potato famine leads to a new period of mass immigration to the US

1850 the california gold rush spurs immigration from china and evtensive internal migration


1881-1885 1 million germans arrives in the peak of German immigration.


1881-1920 2 million Eastern European Jews immigrante to theUS.




Proto-industrialization - Tyler Cornett

·         Proto-industrialization is the process of creating a suitable environment for the Industrial Revolution to occur.


·         This was a general transition from Agriculture to Industry.


·         Proto-industrialization popularized the method of agrarian families selling their surplus materials and crops to the market.


·         This was also the period in which women and children started to bring in their own incomes.


·         The peasants and common people could now produce goods from materials sold to them by merchants at home.



A picture of a typical peasant like the ones

that powered Proto-Industrialism.


"PROTO-INDUSTRIALIZATION." www.edu.gbrown. 6 Feb 2009 <http://faculty.unlv.edu/gbrown/westernciv/wc201/wciv2c18/wciv2c18lsec2.html>.


Enclosure Acts - Michael Decker


The Inclosure/Enclosure Acts were a series of acts passed by Parliament in the United Kingdom that denied people who had once used areas of land from using it to graze animals.  Most were passed between 1750 and 1860.  Nearly 7 million acres were enclosed by the end of the period.  Their significance was that they pushed people to concentrate into urban areas and work for wages (becoming the proletariat).  This ultimately brought about capitalism by means of political coercion. 


Urbanization was a direct outgrowth of the Enclosure Acts which in turn brought about capitalism.


"Inclosure Acts." Wikipedia. 2009. WikiMedia. 5 Feb 2009



Stearns, Peter. "The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West."World Civilizations. 4th ed. 2006.



English textile trade – Estefania Delgado

-In the early 18th century, British textile manufacture was based on wool, which was processed by individual artisans, doing the spinning and weaving on their own premises.

-This system is called a cottage industry.

-Cotton goods became the dominant British export by the early decades of the 19th century.

- Exports of the cotton industry was centered in Lancashire

-Transportation had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain.

- Good were transported around the country by horse and cart, or by riverboat. Draught animals for agriculture and haulage supplied power.

- The export trades in woolen goods were for more than a quarter of British exports during most of the 18th century, doubling between 1701 and 1770.



The spinning jenny was one of the innovations that started the revolution


Montagna, Joseph A. "The Industrial Revolution." Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. Yale edu. 5 Feb. 2009 <http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1981/2/81.02.06.x.html>.


James Watts and the steam engine - Shelly Franks

  • Born in 1736 and died in 1819
  • Watt was born in Greenock, Scotland
  • He was the son of a shopkeeper and carpenter
  • In 1763 Watt received a model of a Newcomen atmospheric steam engine to repair even though he repaired it he wasn't happy
  • Watt discovered the principle of the separate condenser and in 1769 he patened his discovery
  • In 1774 he obatined the support of Matthew Boulton
  • In 1782 Watt patented the double-acting steam engine, which used steam pressure to push a piston both ways
  • His improved engine design was the first that made steam power seem practical
  • Watt also invented a throttle valve and many other devices
  • He did scientific research in chemistry and metallurgy and was one of the first people to suggest that water was a compund
  • The power unit - watt - was named after him


Hartman, J. P. "Watt, James." The World Book. 2003 ed.


 A picture of Watt's industrial steam engine. 


The steamship and the railroad -

Vulcanization and Bessemer process -Cory Hume 

The vulcanization process involves curing rubber that involves high heat and curatives. This makes the rubber more durable and resistant to chemicals. Also, the rubber appears smoother and prevents sticking to surfaces and other materials. Vulcanization process was invented during the 19th century. History’s first glimpse of rubber comes from a stand in London in 1770 where Edward Nairne was selling rubber cubes as erasers. This same process is used to create several rubber products today such as hockey pucks and shoe soles.

                The Bessemer Process was the first source of fast production of steel during the industrial revolution. This is named after Henry Bessemer, who invented it in 1855 even though the process was discovered by William Kelley in 1851. It had been used for hundreds of years, just not to this scale. The process simply removes the impurities of iron blowing oxygen through the melted iron. This also keeps the temperature very high and keeps the iron in a liquid form.

This is a photo of the early machine used for the Bessemer Process.

This is a modern day vulcanization machine.

Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free online reference, research & homework help. — Infoplease.com. 05 Feb. 2009 http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0807299.html.


"Untitled Document." 05 Feb. 2009 <http://www.bouncing-balls.com/chemistry_tech_conservation/vulcanization.htm>.


New power sources - electricity and petroleum -Brianna Kosko

  • Who: Thomas Alva Edison discovered electricity when he created the first central power station and the Rotschilds discovered petroleum
  • What: Electricity is the flow of electrical power and petroleum is a flammable liquid found in rocks
  • When: Electricity came about in 1881 and petroleum came about in 1885
  • Where: Electricity was developed in America and petroleum was developed in Russia
  • Why: They were both discovered to help create modernization and help enhance inventions during this period
  • How it's important: They are important because they work together in the sense that petroleum is used to help generate electricity in electricity plants

Source: http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/electricity.html

  This is a picture of Thomas Edison....creator of the first central power station

Industrial war -



Internal combustion engine -Sara Marshall


è Internal Combustion Engines became widely well-known and used around the beginning of the 1900s.


è It was first researched in 1680 by Christian Huygens.

è But, the first one was actually built in the year 1859.

è Etienne Lenoir was the one to build the first Internal Combustion Engine.

è The first one ran on street-lightning gas, which was started by a simple electric spark.

è It wasn’t powerful, but it ran somewhat smoothly.

è Internal Combustion Engines took a lot of fuel to run, but they were still purchased by many people.

è In 1862, Alphonse Beau de Rochas took it to compression and the four-stroke cycle. But, he never built an engine.

è Later, in 1862, the first-stroke cycle was finally built. (By Nikolaus A. Otto)

è In Nikolaus Otto’s honor, they named this device the Otto Cycle.

è Due to the Internal Combustion Engine, many technological advances have occurred. (Ex/ Pollution control)


....This is a picture/diagram of A 4-Stroke Engine Model. (AKA- Internal Combustion Engine.)



"Evolution of Internal Combustion Engine." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. 2007. Columbia University Press. 5 Feb 2009 http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0858862.html.





Decline of Aristocracy and Rise of Middle Class -

Urbanization – Steven Myers

·         Urbanization is defined as the physical growth of rural or natural lands into urban sprawls.

o    “The Growth of Cities”

o    Urbanization usually takes place when hard times in rural areas accompany economic booms in urban areas.

§  Rural families, naturally, want to move the more prosperous area

o    Urbanization is most commonplace in developing countries.

·         Urbanization was an important cultural movement in America at the turn of the 19th century.

o    Took place because of the technological revolution happening at the time which transformed the factory system, creating a need for mass labor.

·         The UN predicts that over half of the world’s population lives in urban areas.




Stifling-high population density and poor housing are often acquainted with rapid, unplanned urbanization. The NYC “dumbbell tenet” housing is a primary example of this, as is this “shanty town” (pictured above) in Manila, Philippines.



"Urbanization." Wikipedia. 2009. 7 Feb 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urbanization>.

"Urbanization and Global Change." Global Change 01042006 7 Feb 2009 http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange2/current/lectures/urban_gc/.


Capitalism and laissez-faire economics (Shampa Panda)


-Economic concept that dissuades government involvement

-Coined by Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations

-Liberalism in economic stratum

-Free markets, minimal taxes, minimal regulations and private ownership of property

The iconic book The Wealth of Nations by the economic philosopher Adam Smith.

"Capitalism and Laissez-Faire Economics." Wikipedia. Wikipedia. 5 Feb 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laissez-faire>.




Thomas Malthaus, Essay on Populations -Daniel SANM 

Thomas Malthus:

Essay on Population, 1798

Basically Malthus is outlining his ideas on populations as a whole now in time.  He states that food is necessary, and that man and woman will be attracted to each other in order to keep the population growing and existing.  If unchecked population will grow out of control at exponential rates.  While a population increase the value of a workforce decrease while the ever increasing demand for goods increases along with the price.  The poor become poorer and the few rich become richer and less.  Food or sustenance is the check for a population so when it becomes to low compared to a high population the population must shrink.


This picture just goes to show how “BIG” of a deal population can be.

"Malthus." Western Washington University. 10 Feb 2009 http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~stephan/malthus/malthus.1.html.



David Ricardo – Rishi Simha



Image (http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/85/9585-004-22D09AE3.jpg):  This is a portrait of David Ricardo done by Thomas Phillips in 1821.

Born in 1772, David Ricardo, an English economist and theorist, along with Adam Smith and Thomas Malthus, theorized about some of the basic ideas of capitalism.  Ricardo’s most well known accomplishment involved publishing his theory later named the ‘Iron Law of Wages.’  He believed that supply and demand should dictate prices for everything in a free market economy, even an employee’s pay.  His main conclusion was that since people reproduced more than they died, there would always be a surplus of labor; thus, the wage that wage-laborers earned should be lowered or kept the same.  Industrial capitalists loved his ideas because they produced profit at the least cost.  This was used to combat price floor reforms, like the Poor Laws, that were sweeping through Parliament.

 SOURCE: "Untitled Document." HKU - Department of History. University of Hong Kong - Department of History. 05 Feb. 2009 <http://hkuhist2.hku.hk/history/firstyear/Share/shareE06.html>.


Socialism - Lauren Sink

·         Modern socialism originated in the late nineteenth-century working class political movement and the intellectual movement of that period

·         Criticized the effects of industrialization and private ownership on society

·         Socialists mainly share the belief that capitalism unfairly concentrates power and wealth among a small segment of society that controls capital

·         They believe it creates an unequal society and does not provide equal opportunities for everyone in society to attain such status

·         Western European social critics were the first, modern socialists who criticized the excessive poverty and inequality consequence of the Industrial Revolution

·         In 1864, the First International was founded in London

·         The Second International was founded in 1889 in central Europe

·         Socialism had revolution from 1917 to 1923

·         Karl Marx, Joseph Stalin and Vladimir Lenin were famous socialists

·         In 1917, Lenin declared "Long live the world socialist revolution!”

·         Socialism was also involved in both World Wars

 Stalin and Lenin were two supporters of socialism.

Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and communism - Crystal Tsang 

marx-bio.jpg (9551 bytes)


  • Derived the Theory of Scientific Socialism also known as Communism.

  • German philosophers that thought Capitalism was self destructive and would eventually ruin itself.

  • Thought there would be a revolution were the proletariat would overthrow the Capitalist class.

  • Believed in the creation of a classless society.

  • After revolution there would be a dictatorship where the eradication of classes would take place.

  • Born in Prussia, both born in the Rhine Province

  • Incredibly influential in the politics of Eastern and Western Europe, and later the entire world.

  • Laid the cornerstones for the ideas and thought for World War 2, Nazism a reaction to the Marxist ideas of communism.



Trade Unions -

Global Spread of Industrialization -

Crimean War -

Balkan nationalism-




Louisiana purchase- NiCk CaRtEr






-By a trety signed April 30, 1803, the U.S purchased from france Louisiana territory.

-More then 2 million sq kn (800,000 sq mi)

-The landextended from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains.

-The price was about 15 million dollars.

-11,250,000 was to be paid directly.

- With the balance covered by the assumption by the U.S of the french debts to American citezens.



Monroe Doctrine- Nick Carter





-Statement of the U.S policy on the Doctrine after the mid- 1840s, activities and rights of the European powers in the Western Hemisphere.

-Made by the President James Monroe in his seventh anual adress to the Congress of the U.S on Dec. 21 1823

-Became one of the foundations of U.S policy in Latin America.

-Because it was not supported by congressional legislation of affirmed in international law.

-Monroe's statement initially remained only a declaration of policy.

-Its increasing use and popularity elevated it to a principle, specificly termed the Monroe Doctrine





Alfred  Dreyfus- Richard Monroe 

Alfred Dreyfus was a German Born, French artillery captain of Jewish background. In 1894, some German papers were found with his name on it and Dreyfus came under suspicion for being a spy. He was tried by a secret jury of high ranking military officials and, even though he pleaded innocent, he was convicted of treason and sent to a prison in French Guiana. After his departure Georges Picquart, a well known anti-Semite, was appointed chief of military intelligence. Soon after it was discovered that Dreyfus was wrongly accused because a man by the name of Esterházy was the true culprit. But Picquart exonerated him and kept Dreyfus imprisoned. As this scandal leaked out, the French population was deeply split between Dreyfus supporters and the anti-Semitic radicalisms. Due to the pressure of many liberal supporters, most influential being Emile Zola, the government was forced to conduct another trial for Dreyfus. It was discovered that Picquart had forged the documents that wrongly put Dreyfus in prison. What now has become known as the Dreyfus Affair, was one more step towards future European anti-Semitic.



Alfred Dreyfus

“Alfred Dreyfus and the 'Affair'.” Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. 14 February 2009


Decline of Aristocracy and Rise of Middle Class- Richard Monroe



  • Occurs last half of 19th century

  • in Western European countries and the US

  • Democracy and Liberalism leads to basic improvement of the working class- hygiene, safety, education

  • Instead of examinations based on your blood line, based on civil service tests

  • Pioneered by Otto von Bismark, welfare measures increased including social insurance and social security

  • Powerful and outspoken middle class leads to socialism



Otto von Bismarck.[Credits : Bettmann/Corbis]

Otto von Bismark- prime minister that introduced, among other things, social security to help the middle class


Stearns, Peter N. et al. World Civilizations: a Global Experience. Pearson Education: New York, 2007


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